how to choose statistical procedures.


 books on SPSS

  1. Collier, J. (2009). Using SPSS Syntax: A Beginner’s Guide. SAGE.
  2. Coolican, H. (2019). Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology (7th). Routledge.
  3. Dancey, C. P., & Reidy, J. (2020). Statistics Without Maths for Psychology (8th). Pearson.
  4. Field, A. (2009). Discovering Statistics Using SPSS (3rd). SAGE.
  5. Field, A. (2017). Discovering Statistics Using IBM SPSS Statistics (5th). SAGE.
  6. George, D., & Mallery, P. (2022). IBM SPSS Statistics 27 Step by Step: A Simple Guide and Reference (17th). Routledge.
  7. Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. (2017). Understanding Statistics in Psychology with SPSS (7th). Pearson.
  8. Roni, S. M., & Djajadikerta, H. G. (2021). Data Analysis with SPSS for Survey-based Research. Springer. 
  9. Sarstedt, M., & Mooi, E. (2019). A Concise Guide to Market Research: The Process, Data, and Methods Using IBM SPSS Statistics (3rd). Springer. 
  10. Singh Kaurav, R. P., Gursoy, D., & Chowdhary, N. (2021). An SPSS Guide for Tourism, Hospitality and Events Researchers. Routledge.
  11. Verma, J. P. (2016). Sports Research with Analytical Solution using SPSS . Wiley.

1.关于示例数据集 (tourist satisfaction)




1.2 通用数据格式 (没有 variable labels变量名标签和 value labels变量值标签) 



2.数据准备data preparation (data cleaning or data wrangling)

2.1 导入数据


2.2 数据管理

syntax file: add variable labels, value labels, compute variables and recode variables.


Kent State University Libraries. (2017, May 15). SPSS tutorials: Independent samples t test. Retrieved May 17, 2017, from


3.1 频数分析frequency Analysis(分类变量)


3.2 列联表分析cross-table(分类变量) 


3.3 描述性统计分析Descriptive analysis(数值变量)


3.4 自定义表格custom table



4.两个变量之间的关系relationship between two variables

types of variables (level of measurment)

4.1 卡方检验chi-square test


4.2 独立样本T检验independent sample t-test


4.3 单因素方差分析ANOVA


4.4 相关分析correlation


4.5 逻辑回归分析logistic regression


5.量表分析analysis for scales (measurement)

5.1 信度分析reliability analysis


5.2 探索性因子分析(用于效度分析)exploratory factor analysis (EFA)


6.输出分析结果export result