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Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3 (GPT-3) is an autoregressive language model that uses deep learning to produce human-like text.

It is the third-generation language prediction model in the GPT-n series (and the successor to GPT-2) created by OpenAI, a San Francisco-based artificial intelligence research laboratory.[2] GPT-3's full version has a capacity of 175 billion machine learning parameters. GPT-3, which was introduced in May 2020, and was in beta testing as of July 2020,[3] is part of a trend in natural language processing (NLP) systems of pre-trained language representations.

1. (2021, March 25). GPT-3 Powers the Next Generation of Apps. OpenAI.
2. Brown, T. B., Mann, B., Ryder, N., Subbiah, M., Kaplan, J., Dhariwal, P., Neelakantan, A., Shyam, P., Sastry, G., Askell, A., Agarwal, S., Herbert-Voss, A., Krueger, G., Henighan, T., Child, R., Ramesh, A., Ziegler, D. M., Wu, J., Winter, C., … Amodei, D. (2020). Language Models are Few-Shot Learners. ArXiv:2005.14165 [Cs].

3. Floridi, L., & Chiriatti, M. (2020). GPT-3: Its Nature, Scope, Limits, and Consequences. Minds and Machines, 30(4), 681–694.
  1. This is a real example, see Disclosure: LF owns one.

  2. See A classic book still worth reading on the ELIZA effect and AI in general is (Weizenbaum 1976). In 2014 some people claimed, mistakenly, that a chatbot had passed the test. Its name is “Eugene Goostman”, and you can check it by yourself, by playing with it here: When it was tested, I was one of the judges, and what I noticed was that it was some humans who failed to pass the test, asking the sort of questions that I have called here “irreversible”, such as (real examples, these were asked by a BBC journalist) “do you believe in God?” and “do you like ice-cream”. Even a simple machine tossing coins would “pass” that kind of test.

  3. See for example the Winograd Schema Challenge (Levesque et al. 2012).

  4. For an excellent, technical and critical analysis, see McAteer ( ." data-track="click" data-track-action="reference anchor" data-track-label="link" data-test="citation-ref" aria-label="Reference 2020">2020). About the “completely unrealistic expectations about what large-scale language models such as GPT-3 can do” see Yann LeCun (Vice President, Chief AI Scientist at Facebook App) here:

  5. The following note was written by the journalists, not the software: “[…] GPT-3 produced eight different outputs, or essays. Each was unique, interesting and advanced a different argument. The Guardian could have just run one of the essays in its entirety. However, we chose instead to pick the best parts of each, in order to capture the different styles and registers of the AI. Editing GPT-3’s op-ed was no different to editing a human op-ed. We cut lines and paragraphs, and rearranged the order of them in some places. Overall, it took less time to edit than many human op-eds.” (GPT-3 2020).

  6. For some philosophical examples concerning GPT-3, see

  7. For a more extended, and sometimes quite entertaining, analysis see (Lacker ." data-track="click" data-track-action="reference anchor" data-track-label="link" data-test="citation-ref" aria-label="Reference 2020">2020).

  8. For an interesting analysis see (Elkins and Chun 2020).



4. Kulkarni, V. (2020, July 23). What’s GPT-3, the Language Model Built by OpenAI, and What’s So Exciting About It? The Wire Science.
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5. Manjoo, F. (2020, July 29). Opinion | How Do You Know a Human Wrote This? The New York Times.
6. Langston, J. (2021, May 25). Microsoft announced its first customer product features powered by GPT-3 and @Azure. The AI Blog.
GPT3 microsoft

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## what is cheat sheet
A cheat sheet (also cheatsheet) or crib sheet is a concise set of notes used for quick reference.

Cheat sheets are so named because they may be used by students without the instructor's knowledge to cheat on a test. However, at higher levels of education where rote memorization is not as important as in basic education, students may be permitted to consult their own notes (crib notes, or crib sheet) during the exam (which is not considered cheating). The act of preparing a crib sheet can be an educational exercise, and students are sometimes only allowed to use crib sheets they have written themselves.



Enriquez, J. (2021). Right/Wrong: How Technology Transforms Our Ethics. The MIT Press.
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